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All efforts invested in the selection and production of planting material and in site preparation can be rewarded or depreciated during planting (Ivetić and Devetaković 2016[1]). The full effect of the planting method may not be visible until the first stress event, even 10 or more years after planting (Stilinović 1991[2]). Improper planting is one of the main reasons of reforestation failures in Serbia (Ivetić 2015[3]; Fig. 1). A number of planting methods can be used (Stilinović 1991[2]; Kloetzel 2004[4]; Landis et al. 2010[5]; Ivetić 2013[6]), depending on tool and seedling stocktype. Assuming that appropriate planting is applied (e.g. putting seedling into the hole in an appropriate manner), several techniques are available to promote seedling survival and growth.

Figure 1. Improper planting was observed with more than 20% of the total number of dead seedlings at 10 sites (Ivetić 2015[3]). These seedlings are found dead after one growing season because of shallow planting and poor root contact with soil.


  1. Ivetić V, Devetaković J (2016) Reforestation challenges in Southeast Europe facing climate change. Reforesta 1: 178-220. DOI:
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stilinović S (1991) Afforestation. Naučna knjiga, Belgrade. University book. 274 p. [In Serbian]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ivetić V (2015) Reforestation in Serbia: Success or failure? In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia. pp 1-12.
  4. Kloetzel S (2004) Revegetation and restoration planting tools: an in-the-field perspective. Native Plants Journal 5: 34-42.
  5. Landis TD, Dumroese RK, Haase DL (2010) The container tree nursery manual. Vol. 7, Seedling processing, storage, and outplanting, Agric. Handbk. 674. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 200 p.
  6. Ivetić V (2013) Handbook on Seed production, seedling production and afforestation [On Serbian: Praktikum    iz    Semenarstva, rasadničarstva  i pošumljavanja].  University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry, Belgrade, Serbia. 213 p.