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The conversion of forest to other land use independently whether human-induced or not. This includes permanent reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10 percent threshold such as areas of forest converted to agriculture, pasture, water reservoirs, mining, and urban areas. The term also includes areas where, for example, the impact of disturbance, over-utilization or changing environmental conditions affects the forest to an extent that it cannot sustain a canopy cover above the 10 percent threshold. The term specifically excludes areas where the trees have been removed as a result of harvesting or logging, and where the forest is expected to regenerate naturally or with the aid of silvicultural measures (FRA 2018[1]).

  1. Terms and definitions - FRA 2018