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The most used water harvesting techniques in SEE are reversed slope terraces called gradoni (adapted from Lujić 1973[1]): Gradoni at different slopes (A and B) and with manual prepared planting hole (C). During planting hole preparation, soil layers are inverted.

Gradoni, a version of bench terracing, is a technique of soil preparation for afforestation used since the end of the 19th century in France (Andrejević 1959[2]) and Italy (Mercurio and Schirone 2015[3]), and it was widely practiced in Serbia and FYR Macedonia. This method was used in Grdelica gorge in Serbia and provided more efficient soil erosion control compared to afforestation using planting holes without terracing (Lukić 2013[4]).


  1. Lujić R (1973) Forest melioration [In Serbian: Шумске мелиорације. Уџбеник Универзитет у Београду Шумарски факултет]. University handbook – University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry. 415 p.
  2. Andrejević M (1959) Are gradoni new in our country? [In Serbian: Да ли су градони новина за нашу земљу?]. Šumarstvo 5-6: 268-272.
  3. Mercurio R, Schirone B (2015) Black pine reforestation of the Apennines in the Abruzzi region (central Italy): Perspectives and management. In: Ivetić V, Ćirković‐Mitrović T (eds) Book of abstracts: International conference Reforestation Challenges, Belgrade 03‐06 June 2015. pp 36.
  4. Lukić S (2013) The effects of ameliorative afforestations in Grdelička gorge and Vranjska valley. [In Serbian: Мелиоративни ефекти противерозионих пошумљавања на подручју Грделичке клисуре и Врањске котлине]. Ph D Thesis. University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry. 227 p.