Inoculation with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
Inoculation of seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve seedling survival and growth on sites with shallow or no soil profile (Ivetić and Devetaković 2016). A combination of soil terracing, urban solid refuse amendment, and mycorrhization could be successfully applied in afforestation programs in semiarid and degraded sites (Roldan et al. 1996). Seedling mycorrhization at planting correlated positively with growth (Duñabeitia 2004) and survival (Óskarsson 2010). A simple and cost efficient technique for promoting mycorrhization is addition of forest soil to the planting hole. Although nursery inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi resulted in a faster growth rate, addition of forest soil to the planting holes to promote mycorrhization improved field growth of Pinus halepensis (Querejeta et al. 1998). Seedling performance can be significantly enhanced through PGPR inoculation of root systems (Chanway 1997), especially when moving from favorable to harsh sites (Chanway and Holl 1993; Chanway and Holl 1994). Additionally, seedling inoculation with PGPR is beneficial on contaminated soils (Babu et al. 2014; Karličić et al. 2016). Inoculation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus sylvestris seedlings with PGPR increased seedling growth in coal mine overburden (Karličić et al. 2015). PGPR have a short-term, site specific effectiveness for reforestation of conifer seedlings, which necessitate matching PGPR strains to outplanting sites for effective growth promotion (Chanway et al. 2000). Although use of mycorrhizal fungi and PGPR has the potential to benefit seedling during establishment phase, the seedling-microorganism relationship does not always yield improved field performance (Grossnickle 2000).
- ↑ Ivetić V, Devetaković J (2016) Reforestation challenges in Southeast Europe facing climate change. Reforesta 1: 178-220. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21750/REFOR.1.10.10
- ↑ Roldan A, Querejeta I, Albadalejo J, Castillo V (1996) Growth response of Pinus halepensis to inoculation with Pisolithus arhizus in a terraced rangeland with urban refuse. Plant Soil 179: 35–43.
- ↑ Duñabeitia M, Rodrı́guez N, Salcedo I, Sarrionandia E (2004) Field mycorrhization and its influence on the establishment and development of the seedlings in a broadleaf plantation in the Basque country. Forest Ecol Manag 195: 129-39. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.038.
- ↑ Óskarsson Ú (2010) Potting substrate and nursery fertilization regime influence mycorrhization and field performance of Betula pubescens seedlings. Scand J Forest Res 25: 111-117. doi:10.1080/02827581003730781.
- ↑ Querejeta IJ, Roldán A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (1998) The role of mycorrhizae, site preparation, and organic amendment in the afforestation of a semi-arid Mediterranean site with Pinus halepensis. Forest Sci 44: 203-211.
- ↑ Chanway CP (1997) Inoculation of tree roots with plant growth promoting soil bacteria: An emerging technology for reforestation. For Sci 43: 99-112.
- ↑ Chanway CP, Holl FB (1993) First year field performance of Spruce seedlings inoculated with plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Can J Microbiol 39: 1084-1088.
- ↑ Chanway CP, Holl FB (1994) Growth of outplanted Lodgepole pine seedlings one year after inoculation with plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. For Sci 40: 238-246.
- ↑ Babu GA, Shea JP, Byung-Taek O (2014) Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites. Sci Total Environ 476-477: 561–567. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.119.
- ↑ Karličić V, Golubović Ćurguz V, Raičević V (2016) The alleviation of reforestration challenges by beneficial soil microorganisms. Reforesta 1:238-259.
- ↑ Karličić V, Radić D, Jovičić Petrović J, Golubović-Ćurguz V, Kiković D, Raičević V (2015) Inoculation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings with plant growth promoting bacteria causes increased growth in coal mine overburden. In: Ivetić V, Stanković D (eds) Proceedings: International conference Reforestation Challenges, 03-06 June 2015, Belgrade, Serbia, pp 42-49.
- ↑ Chanway CP, Shishido M, Nairn J, Jungwirth S, Markham J, Xiao G, Holl FB (2000) Endophytic colonization and field responses of hybrid Spruce seedlings after inoculation with plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria. Forest Ecol Manage 133: 81-88. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(99)00300-X.
- ↑ Grossnickle SC (2000) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species: the performance of planted seedlings. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 407 p.