Planting Layout and Density

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Irregular planting pattern can complicate silviculture operations, but it can promote seedling survival and provide a close surrogate to successful natural regeneration that provides a more natural appearance of a landscape (Ivetić and Devetaković 2016[1]). Choosing the best planting spot is critical and more important than exact spacing (Landis et al. 2010[2]), because initial seedling performance is related to microsite performance. On sites with harsh conditions, planting in groups on deeper soil is recommended, regardless of adopted regular planting pattern (Stilinović 1991[3]). The risk of seedling mortality is not constant, but varies with tree species, planting density, tree age, and site conditions (Gadow and Kotze 2014[4]). The decision on planting layout and density should, however, be project specific with aim to promote survival and reforestation success.


  1. Ivetić V, Devetaković J (2016) Reforestation challenges in Southeast Europe facing climate change. Reforesta 1: 178-220. DOI:
  2. Landis TD, Dumroese RK, Haase DL (2010) The container tree nursery manual. Vol. 7, Seedling processing, storage, and outplanting, Agric. Handbk. 674. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. 200 p.
  3. Stilinović S (1991) Afforestation. Naučna knjiga, Belgrade. University book. 274 p. [In Serbian]
  4. Gadow K, Kotze H (2014) Tree survival and maximum density of planted forests – Observations from South African spacing studies. Forest ecosystems 1: 21.