Soil Preparation

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The usual methods of soil preparation in South-East European Countries are subsoiling, mechanical terracing, and mechanical or manual preparation of planting holes. On karst terrains in Croatia, afforestation by Pinus nigra and P. pinaster Aiton after subsoiling resulted in higher survival and growth rates compared to planting in pickaxe, and mechanically drilled holes (Tomašević 1994[1]). Subsoiling with a bulldozer promoted higher survival of Pinus halepensis Miller (Barberá et al. 2005[2]; Jelić 2012[3]), Quercus ilex (Palacios et al. 2009[4], Jelić 2012[3]), Cupressus sempervirens var. pyramidalis L., Pinus pinaster, and Pinus pinea L. (Jelić 2012[3]) than holes made with an excavator in reforestation of a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem.


  1. Tomašević A (1994) Undermining as first stage of soil preparation for afforestation. [In Croatian: Podrivanje kao prva faza pripreme tla za pošumljavanje] Šumarski list 5-6: 173-181.
  2. Barberá GG, Martínez-Fernández F, Álvarez-Rogel J, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2005) Short- and intermediate-term effects of site and plant preparation techniques on reforestation of a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem with Pinus halepensis Mill. New Forest 29 (2): 177-198. doi:10.1007/s11056-005-0248-6.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Jelić G (2012) Effects of container type and field preparation on afforestation success in Mediterranean area [In Croatian: Utjecaj vrste kontejnera i pripreme tla na uspjeh pošumljavanja u sredozemnom području]. Doctoral Thesis. University of Zagreb - Faculty of Forestry.
  4. Palacios G, Cerrillo N M R, Campo A, Toral M (2009) Site preparation, stock quality and planting date effect on early establishment of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings. Ecological Engineering 35 (1): 38-46. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng. 2008.09.006